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LIGHTING 



Examples of its Successful 
Application in the Industries 



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1920 



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ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT 
NATIONAL LAMP WORKS 
of GENERAL ELECTRIC CO. 



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Foreword 




THE eye requires a certain amount of 
time and the expenditure of a certain 
amount of effort to see an object 
y. Under good lighting, the time re- 
quired is less and the effort required smaller 
than under poor lighting. The result is that 
under good light, production speeds up, and 
the increased output is obtained ^yithout 
strain or added exertion on the part of the 
workman. One has only to compare the good 
hghting installations reproduced in this book 
with the bad to realize that eliminating 
Jelays— and so increasing production-through 
improved lighting is something more than a 
theory. 

In examining these reproductions, one 
should imagine himself the workman on the 
job. The clearness with which details are 
revealed, the softness of the light, the absence 
of serious direct and reflected glare, and the 
cheerful, stimulating appearance of the room 
will then take on a new and more emphatic 
meaning. Not onlv are the attributes of im- 



proved lighting just mentioned responsible for 
substantial increases in production but for 
marked decreases in spoilage and for greatly 
reduced accident hazard as well. Of several 
hundred manufacturers who were asked what 
in their opinion were the chief benefits of 
good lighting, 79% named increase in pro- 
duction; 71%, decrease in spoilage; 60%, 
prevention of accidents; 51%, improvement 
in discipline; 41%, improveiaent of hygienic 

conditions. 

Although the aim has been to have these 
illustrations show as nearly as possible the 
true lighting effects, no retouching of any kind 
has been resorted to. The printed pages are 
faithful reproductions of what the camera saw. 
In this connection it should be stated that the 
illumination values given in the data accom- 
panying the pictures have been discounted to 
allow for reasonable accunuilation of dust and 
dirt between cleaning periods. They repre- 
sent, therefore, the average working illu- 
mination. 



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Tliis aniKiltirc-windiiii' room is an in- 

hlanc(* wlicrc within a period of a year 
the jylant nKina<i'enieiU found it profil- 
ahle to iiiereaiie the iUuniiiiation by three 
sue('essiv(» steps from -> foot-eandles to 17 
fo(jt-ean(lles. It was felt that the eost 
of liii:ht was n(*<^li<(ihle compared with 
the lolal eost of production. 

4n>t how far it pays to go in Inci-easin<i: 
the (piantity of hght sn|>plie(l for (htfer- 
eal manufacturing^ (operations has not 
yel been determined. In shops considered 
Will supplied with (hiyh^hl, the ilhi- 
mination usuallv ran*res from 10 to ^.3 

• o 

ft>o I -candles. 



Data — Plate One 



Type of Unit 

RL^I Standard Dome 



Lamp 



3 00 -watt ^Iazda C 
Bowl-Enamel(Ml 




]\IoL.\Ti\(; IIi:k;ht 

1 1 feel above Hoor 
8 feet above work 



Spacint; Distance 
10 X 121^^ 



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A\ EHA(;E iLI.rMIXATIOX 

1 7 foot -candles 




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Data— Plate Two 



Type of Unit 

RLM Standard Dome 



Lamp 



1 5 - vv a 1 1 Mazda C 
Bowl-Enameled 



Mounting Height 

1 1 feet above floor 
feet above work 



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In this assembly room, the diffusion of 
light from sources of large area enables 
the workmen to see readily into the 
interior of the castings. This facilitates 
the asseml)lv of sewing machine heads bv 
eliminating small losses of time, and so 
becomes an important factor in increasing 
production. Note the softness of the shad- 
ows cast upon the floor by the benches. 
No time need be lost in groping for parts 
or tools where such a svstem of illumina- 

ft. 

tion is in use. 



Spacing Distance 
10 X 10 



Average Illfmination 
9 foot -candles 




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PLATK r\\U 




Data — Plate Three 

Type of Unit 

Porcelain- Enameled 



Steel Dome 



Lamp 



1000-watt Mazda C 
Clear 



Mounting Height 
40 feet above work 



AVliere the mounting height is 30 feet 
or more, the larger sizes of clear ^NIazda 
C lamps will be found economical, and 
unobjectionable from the standpoint of 
direct glare. 

In an interior of this type, the units 
must be mounted at a sufficient height 
above the work to clear the crane, — - 
with the result that large Mazda C 
lamps may be used at relatively wide 
spacing distances. 



Spacing Distance 
48 x40 



Average Iliamixatiox 
4 foot -candles 






PLATE THREE 






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Where there are many overliead belts, 
it is often advantageous to permit a small 
proportion of the light to reach the iipi)er 
part of the room direct. Wliere this 
unit is used, a gloomy appearance of the 
eeilin"' — a condition which may be ob- 

Plate 



served in the shop pictured in 

is avoidccL 



Eight 



The management of this plant has 
found the illuminalion insufRcient. In 
buildings which thev now have under 
construction, provision lias been made 
for practically double this illumination 
from units of the same type. 



Data — Plate Four 



Type of Unit 

Glass-Top Steel Dome 

Lamp 

200-watt Mazda C 
Bowl-Enameled 



MoivTixG Height 
12 feet above floor 
9 feet above work 



Spacixg 

14 X 14 (Staggered) 

Average Illumixatiox 
() foot -candles 




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Data — Plate Five 



Type of Uxit 

RLM Standard Dome 



Lamp 



2 00 -watt ]\Iazda C 
Clear 



Mounting Hei(;ht 
9 1 9 feet above floor 



Spacing Distance 
9x11 



A relatively large quantity of light is 
desirable for the precise work of assem- 
bling small parts for adchng machines. 
Tn this installation, light surfaces on the 
work l)enclies reflect sufficient light to the 
ceiling to create a bright and cheerful 
appearance. 

The sharp shadows cast upon the floor 

by the chairs suggest the possibihty for 

improvement through the use of bowl- 
enameled lamps. 



Average Illimixation 
14 foot -can dies 





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Contrary to popular opinion, the use 
of KL^NI Standard dome reflectors in this 
shop would liave resulted in an increase 
in illumination and the installation \Yould 
have been as satisfactory in all other 
respects. In many plants, more light 
would have been found desiral>le for 
this class of work. 

In a building of this character, angle 
units mounted under the crane-wav would 
be of considerable value as a supplement 
to the overhead system. In some parts 
of this room, it has lieen found desirable 
to install auxiliarv units under the 
balconies. 



Data— Plate Six 



Type of Unit 

Porcelain -Enameled 



Steel, Deep Bowl 



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5 - w a 1 1 ^I A z D A C 



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Mounting Height 

40 feet above floor 
35 feet above work 



Spacing Distance 
20 X 25 



\vekage Ix^lumination 

5 foot -candles 





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Data — Plate Seven 

TJie Old 



Type of Unit 

Some cone shades 



Lamp 



Carbon, Gem, Mazda B 



Mounting Height 

Irregular, drop cords 



Spacing Distance 
Irregular 



Average Illl^mination 

0.2 foot-candles. 




PLATE EICITT 



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Data — Plate Eight 

The Neiv 

Type or Unit 

RLM Standard Dome 

Lamp 

1 - \v a 1 1 ]VI a z D A C 
Bowl-Enameled 

Mounting Height 

1 1 feet above floor 
71^ feet above work 

Spacing Distance 
10 X 10 

Average iLLrMiNATiON 
6 foot-candles 




This is the interior shown in Plate 
Seven as it appears under the new system 
of general hghting. It is easy to under- 
stand how a change in the lighting of 
the kind here shown is accompanied by 
a decrease in the accident hazard and by 
an improvement in morale, discipline, 
and cleanliness. Under the new system, 
it has been possible for the first time to 
use a regular night shift on this work. 

Were the area overhead painted white, 
this room would more closely resembh* the 
assembly room shown in Plate Two. 



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ri.ATF EIGHT 




Data — Plate Xixe 



Type of Unit 

]Metal-Cap Diffuser 



Lami 



200-\vatt Mazda C 



Cle^ 



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The darin"' local li<>lit shown above is a 

or? c? 

menace to safetv and vision and is one of 
the evils which Lii^iitinu Codes are aim- 
ino' to destroy. Contrast the lighting- of 
this milling machine and the lighting of 
those shown in Plate Nine. 

In using a unit such as the metal-cap 
diffuser, it is essential that the spacing 
distance he not more than 1^9 times the 
mounting height of the unit above the 
plane of work. 





PLATi: MNK 




Data — Plate Ten 



Type of Unit 

Metal-Cap Diffuser 

Lamp 

2 00 -watt ^NIazda C 
Clear 



Mounting Height 

10^9 feet above floor 



Spacixg Distance 

10 ft. X 10 ft. 8 in 



x\vEKAGE Illumination 
9 foot -candles 



Where the work is being done on glossy 
surfaces or polislied metals, it is essential 
that the light be well ditl'used in order to 
avoid annoying reflections. This has 
been accomplished in this instance by 
the use of the metal-cap dift'user. 

Such a system makes the installation 
of local lamps unnecessary. 




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The use of angle units mounted beneath 
the crane-way to supplement a general 
overhead system will materially assist in 
the ilUunination of lateral surfaces bv 
giving light from the direction of normal 
dayhglit. The angle imits should be 
carefully designed and properly installed 
to avoid direct glare. 

The Uglit shining through tlic windows 
is from a system of yard liuhtin**" 



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wdiich is often desirable from a protective 
standpoint. 



Data — Plate Eleven 



Type of Unit 



Porcelain-Enameled 

Steel, Dome 
Porcelain -Enameled 

Steel, Ansfle 





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PLATE ELEVEN 




Data — Plate Twelve 



The management of this plant lays 
great stress on the avoidance of spoilage 
in the operation of these veiling looms. 
Therefore a high value of illumination 
has been provided, its cost being con- 
sidered unimportant in A'iew of the 
reduced spoilage and greater output which 
result. 



Local lightin 
machinery has 
in this plant. 



for 
been 



the most intricate 
found unnecessarv 



Type of Unit 

Dense Opal Enclosing 
Ball 



Lamp 



500-watt 

Clear 



]VI A z D a C 



Mounting Height 

13 feet above floor 
6 feet above work 

Spacing Distance 
10 X 10 

Average Illumination 
20 foot-candles 




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PLATE TWFLVE 



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AVilli the use of the bowl-enameled 
lamp and the lil.^l Standard dome re- 
flector, direct ^lare and had shadows mav 
1)0 avoidecL and anno\'ance from re- 
flected i:lare minimized. This eqiiii)ment 
will ]><- found the most "satisfactory for 
a very large {)ro])ortion of all industrial 
I)lants. 

The advanta;.^e of usin^r white paint 
on the walL is noticeable in thi^ room; 
if the roof trusses were similarly whitened, 
tlie ai>pearance of the room would he 
imi)rovf'fh 



Data — Plate Thirteex 



Type of Unit 

KLM standard Dome 



Lamp 



15 0- w a 1 1 Mazda C 
Bowl -Enameled 



Mouxtixg Height 

1 1 feet above floor 
7^/9 f^^t above work 

SpatixC DlSTAXr/E 

10 X 10 



Average Illumixatiox 
9 foot-candles 




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PLATE THIRTEEN 





PLATK FOT'RTFKN' 



Data — Plate Fourteen 

The Old 



Type of Unit 

Some cone shades 



Lamps 



Gem, Carbon, Mazda B 



Mounting Height 

Irregular, drop cords 

Spacing Distance 

Irregular 



As a strictly local lighting system, this 
might be described as good, yet the ap- 
pearance of the room Is dark and depress- 
ing. Reflections of the lamp filaments in 
the working surfaces are likewise a source 
of considerable annoyance to the work- 
men. • 




PLATE FIPTKKN 



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Data — Pl.\tf: Fifteen 

The yexc 



Type of Unit 

RLM Standard Dome 



Lamp 



100-watt Mazda C 
Rowl-Enameled 



MouxTixG Height 

1 1 feet above floor 
73 2 f^^^ above work 

Spacing Distance 
10 X 10 



Average Illumination 
6 foot -candles 




Tlie proverbial forest of belting a- 
found in this screw-machine room, need 
not prevent an adequate sui)ply of prop- 
erly diffused Huht reaching the work from 
a general overhead system. Sources of 
lai^e area are necessary to avoid sharp, 
black shadows. 



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The old lighting system in this weave 
room was considered a model at the 
time of its installation a few years hro. 
It consisted of 75-watt Mazda C lamps 
and bowl-sliaped steel reflectors on a 
spacing and mounting which was such 
as to insure uniform illumination. The 
defects of the system Avere, first, insuf- 
ficient illumination — about il2 foot-can- 
dles, and second, sharp, harsli shadows. 
Both of these defects were corrected 
simply by substituting 150-watt bowl- 
enameled Mazda lamps and the proper 
size of KLM dome reflectors on the 
same outlets. 



Data — Plate Sixteen 



The Xcir 



Type of Unit 

RL^I Standard Dome 



Lamps 



150-watt Mazda C 

Bowl -Enameled 




^Mounting Height 

feet abo\ e floor 
103^ feet above work 

Spactx(^ Distaxce 

X IGl^ 




Aveha(;e Illumixatiox 
5 foot-candles 





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Data — Plate Seventeen 

Type of Unit 
Duplexalite 

Lamp 

^OO-watt :\Iazda C 
Clear 



Mounting Height 
9 feet above floor 



rare. 



Good lighting in composing rooms is 
There can be little doubt that the 



M 



reater quantity of work turned out in 
this room much more than pays the dif- 
ference in cost between po^r and good 



lighting. 



With units of the type used in this case, 
the greater part of the light is directed 
to llie ceiling whence it is diffused 
throughout the room. 



Spacing Distance 
9x9 



Average Illlminatiox 
10 foot-candles 





IMATE SKVF.NTP:EN 




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The percei)tion of objects in their 
three dimensions, so necessary in the 
industries, is relatively unimportant in 
offices and drafting rooms. Here, an 
ample supply of soft well-diffused light 
is required. Shadows and extrc^ne con- 
trasts in brightness should be avoided 
and the system selected should be easy 
to maintain and satisfactory in appear- 
ance. 

These requirements are best satisfied 
by the use of some form of totally in- 
direct or dense semi-indirect lio'htina" 



the ceiling 



be 



unit, whenever me ceumg can oe so 
finished that it will reflect a fair propor- 
tion of the light reaching it. 



Data — Plate Eighteen 

Type of Unit 

Tot all V Indirect 

Lamp 

300-watt Mazda C 
Clear 

Moi XTixG Hetght 

3 feet below ceiling 

9 feet above floor 

Spacing Distance 

10 X 10 

Average lLi.r:\iixATioN 

10 foot -candles 




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Where structural features prevent the 
ceihng of a drafting room from being 
made a reasonably good reflecting surface, 
semi-enclosing units offer a quality of 
illumination which is next in choice to 
that of semi-indirect or totally indirect 
systems. For satisfactory results, the 
semi-enclosing units must be closely 
spaced and the entire installation care- 
fully planned. 



Data — Plate Nineteen 
Type of Unit 

Semi-Enclosing 

Lamp 

200-watt Mazda C 
Clear 

Mounting Height 

9 feet above floor 
6 feet abo\'e work 



hPACiNG Distance 

8x8 

Average Illumination 

13 foot-candles 





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Semi-indirect dense opal glassware pro- 
vides for the requirements of office light- 
ing in a satisfactory manner. With such 
a system, it is essential that the ceiling 
be light in color. 

Note that the outside rows of units 
have been placed close to the walls in 
order to provide good illumination on the 
outside rows of desks. 

\\liere artificial light is required to 
supplement daylight, the Mazda C-^2 
daylight lamj) may be used to advantage, 
because of the manner in which its hght 
blends with daylight; about 50% ad- 
ditional wattage is required for equal 
ilhimination. 



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Data — Plate Twenty 



Type of Unit 
Dense Opal Semi-Indirect 



Lamp 



200-watt Mazda C 
Clear 



JVIouNTiNG Height 

33/2 f^*^t below ceiling 
113^ feet above floor 



Spacing Distance 

101^x113.^ 



Average Illumination 

8 foot -candles 





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IMATF, TWENTY 



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- ■" — 






LIGHT MEASUREMENT 



A 



T the time that the new interest in hght- 



ing was just beginning to be felt, came the 
development of an instrument called the Foot- 
Candle Meter, which makes the measurement 
of illumination a quick and easy matter. A 
glance at the scale of the instrument shows 
the intensity directly in foot-candles, the ac- 
cepted unit of illumination measurement. 

By actually measuring the light right down 
at tiie job, the Foot-Candle Meter eliminates 
guesswork. The plant manager can make 
sure that his men are getting sufficient light to 
enable them to see quickly and clearly and 
comfortably for long periods of time. He can 
prove to his own satisfaction that a few 
weeks' accumulation of dust and dirt upon the 
lighting equipment may cut the light delivered 
at the work to one-half or even one-third of the 
amount delivered when the equipment is clean; 
and he can formulate a cleaning schedule 
which meets his individual requirements. He 
can, by an occasional trip through his plant, 
make sure that the lighting is performing its 
function in the production program. 




A Survey of Lighting Conditions is Easily and Quickly Made 




^er 



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250 



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Bitummou^ Co<x{ 

Chern/cdth — 

Merals 

Labor ^t- 
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^ Manufacturing CoJt3 / 



Cost of Ugh r 



/909 /9t0 I9fi tStZ 19 f 3 t9t4- t9/5 . /9/6 /9/T l9t<3 /9/9 

YtAR 



THE COST OF LIGHT 

A FRACTION of one per 
cent increase in factory 
output or decrease in accidents 
is enough to pay for good light- 
ing in most industrial plants. 
Tests in a number of plants 
have shown increases of 10 to 
20% in production following im- 
provements in the lighting sys- 
tems. Accounts of several of 
these tests have been published 
in many journals, one of the most 
complete treatments appearing 
in the Electrical Review of 
March 22, 1919. 



Contrary to the trend of practically all other manufacturing costs over a period of several years, 
the cost of light has been almost continually decreasing. Tliis is clearly shown in the accompanying 
curves. It will be noted that while costs as a whole have doubled since 1909, the cost of Hght is about 
one-fifth of what it was at that time; in other words, in terms of other manufacturing costs, 
light now costs one-tenth of what it did about ten years ago. 



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[BLANK PAGE] 




CCA 



INTERNATIONAL